The concept was initially developed by the wood sector. Here, the cascading principle is defined as: “A strategy for using raw materials or the products made from them in chronologically sequential steps as long, often and efficiently as possible for materials and only to recover energy from them at the end of the product life cycle”. Indeed, this has more recently become a guiding principle for other sectors using biomass as their primary feedstock with the aim of ensuring development of a sustainable bioeconomy. However, while this concept may be relevant and appropriate for some, many others strongly believe that the realities of the bioeconomy are too complex and diverse to apply such a principle transversally and indiscriminately. This is partly because the wood ...