Renewable Matter # 1 / Next Europe

The European Path to Bioeconomy Runs through Clusters

by Mario Bonaccorso

Who are the major protagonists of the European bioeconomy? Clusters. From France to the Netherlands, from Germany to Italy, in the Old Continent many countries aggregate small and medium enterprises, research centres, universities and – occasionally – investors, driven by the motto “working together to compete”.

Long gone are the days when the big enterprises of the early capitalism used to rule from within the innovation processes, from basic research to the marketing of new products. Nowadays such innovation processes are governed by large, complex and structured production chains, with various economic and non-economic actors, often with a local connotation, influencing their characteristics and...

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